The purpose of this thought experiment is to find better answers for fundamental nuclear and elementary particle interactions. The goal is to apply these new basic principles in the search for more efficient fusion of hydrogen isotopes into helium, releasing huge amounts of energy. Extracting nuclear energy from hydrogen would instantly solve the world's looming energy crisis.
A long time ago, the "miraculous" conversion of light into particles triggered curiosity of how the experimentally well-verified process of particle creation and annihilation could be envisioned. The answers provided on the subject were simply not satisfactory. What is actually going on in this "magic mental box" where a photon enters one side and two elementary particles with opposite charges exit the opposite side?
In that search a solution emerged that made sense and the consequences of this recognition led to great simplifications in fundamental nuclear and particle physics, correcting an unchallenged error made in 1932. This fundamental concept of pair creation is illustrated in fig.1. The fleeting electromagnetic energy of the photon can be found in the rotational energy of electromagnetic vortices (EMV) that resist change of motion perceptible as inertia. In short, mass is trapped electromagnetic energy in the form of toroidal EMV or Energiewirbel.
Spin and magnetic moment are the natural outcome of these gyrating particles or circular TE waves. As the energy and hence mass of the particles increase with acceleration so does their size shrink.
The mysteries about the weak and strong nuclear forces can be explained as different manifestations of the intermediate electromagnetic forces. The neutron consists of a proton surrounded by a contracted and captured electron. The associated radial electromagnetic forces are the source of the weak nuclear force. The deuteron consists of two axially separated protons held together by a centrally captured electron as shown in fig.6. The axial electromagnetic forces are the source of the strong nuclear force.
The same principles were applied to determine the geometries of force-balanced nuclei up to C-12, including extreme proton- and neutron-rich isotopes. The alpha-particle emerges as a very compact symmetric cuboid that provides a unique building block to assemble the entire isotopic chart with 23, 33 and 43 arrays. Exotic neutron-4 appears viable which may explain dark matter in the centers of stars.
The spinning toroids generate extended oscillating fields that interact with stationary field oscillations. The velocity-dependent frequency differences cause beat signals equivalent to matter waves leading to interference. The extended standing electromagnetic waves (SEM) are entangled with every particle and explain wave particle duality issues. Gravitation is envisioned as the residual force of overlapping SEM-waves. On that basis, the age of the universe of 13.5 billion years can be correlated via gravity to fundamental microscopic constants.
The recognition that all heavy particles, including the protons, are related to electrons via muons and pions explains the identity of all charges to within 10-36. Greater deviations would overpower gravitation and may explain the accelerating inflation of the universe based on an initial relativistic mismatch in charges. Such explanations would render the invention of dark energy obsolete.
The assumptions for this Energiewirbel concept are benign in comparison to the standard model. The complexities of the quark and string models are neither necessary nor justifiable.
Table 1 (Table1.pdf) 2.2M